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The materials

Houses were built of local volcanic rocks, such as the black, hard andesite, used in walls and fences; the red haematite, used in lintels and wall facades; and pumice, used for building domes. The Terra Theraic (Theraic earth), the hard, cohesive soil consisting of layered volcanic materials –ash, lava, pumice, and scoria– was also commonly used. Other materials included lime, mainly extracted from the mountain of Profitis Elias, rainwater, and timber. As local production was insufficient to cover the needs, timber was also imported from Ios, Crete, and Russia. Doors and windows had frames made of hewn haematite.
The exclusive use of vaults in order to cover spaces derived from the lack of timber for producing wooden framework and from the ingenious exploitation of the local volcanic materials. Vaults were cylindrical, groined, spherical and barrel-vaults, the ones usually built and used for rectangular shapes, so far the latest form to be applied).
For the floors they used a mixture of theraic earth and mortar to which they added sand in order to increase durability and resistance to friction. Floors were often covered with tiles from Ios island. Wooden floors could exist only in a limited number of luxurious mansions.
The ground floor of yards was decorated either whit black stone, or with patterns from colorful volcanic stones or sea pebbles which they called "shells" (hohlidia). Doors and windows always bore frames made of chiseled red stone arranged symmetrically. The doors were always double and the doors of the kanaves (wineries) were arched.

Αρχιτεκτονική - Υπόσκαφα
Αρχιτεκτονική - Υπόσκαφα

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